City of Santa Monica, USA

Keywords: renewable energy region, 100% renewable energy self sufficiency region, Santa Monica, renewable energy in Santa Monica.

Santa Monica is a city in western Los Angeles County, California, USA (Figure 1). This town is located in Santa Monica Bay. This city is surrounded by:[1]
  • Northwest: Los Angeles City - Pacific Palisades
  • North: Brentwood
  • Northeast: West Lost Angeles
  • East: Mar Vista
  • Southeast: Venice

Figure 1. Santa Monica City in Los Angeles County, California[1]

Desire and Target of Renewable Energy Utilization
Santa Monica City aims to increase the use of Renewable and clean distributed generation sources, and thus reduce the city's total amount of green house emissions and consumption of fossil fuels. Target utilization of renewable energy is 25% citywide electricity by 2010. In addition, 1% of all electricity should come from clean distributed generation by 2010. Main goal is renewable energy self sufficient in 2020.[2]

Performance of Renewable Energy
Renewable energy comes from three sources:[2]
  • first and the largest proportion: Southern California Edision (SCE) renewable power mix, mainly geothermal and wind energy.
  • Commerce Energy
  • Solar Santa Monica
The combination of renewable energy from SCE and Commerce Energy was 531 GJ by 2006 or 18% of total electricity usage (Figure 1). SCE contributes 16% and Commerce Energy 2% of total electricity usage (Figure 2). Clean distributed energy currently is 10% of all electricity usage.[2]

Figure 1. Renewable Composition and Percentage of Total Electricity Usage[2]

Figure 2. Renewable Energy as a Percent of Total Electricity Usage 2006[2]

Solar Santa Monica
This program was launched in 2006 as the first step of Community Energy Independence Initiative. It provides ways for residents to be energy efficient of utilizing energy in home and business, and ways how to produce energy by installing solar panels on individual buildings and community sites throughout the city. In 2007, nearly 20 solar projects was implemented.[2]

Santa Monica Sustainable City Plan
This plan was initiated in 1992 by the City's Task Force on the environment to ensure that Santa Monica Community think, act, and plan sustainable. The program includes four goal areas, which are classified into resource conservation, transportation, pollution prevention and public health protection, community economic development. This program has achieved much success. Many initial targets have been met and this city is recognized as worldwide role model for sustainability.[3]

Update Process
In reviewing the progress made since1994 adoption of the program, the Task Force on the Environment recognized the need to update and expand the sustainability city goals and indicators and to develop new indicators target for 2010. Goals correlated to renewable energy is in the area of resource conservation found in Sustainable City Plan - Adopted plan 2006 are:[3]
  • Significantly decrease overall community consumption, specifically the consumption of non-local, non-renewable, non-recyclable, and non-recycled materials, water, energy, and fuels. The city should take a leadership role in encouraging sustainable procurement, extended producer responsibility, and should explore innovative strategies to become a zero waste city.
  • Within renewable limits, encourage the use of local, non polluting, renewable, and recycled resources (water, energy - wind, solar, and geothermal - and material resources).

Next Plan to be Improved[2]
  • Become energy independent with Solar Santa Monica.
  • Purchase renewable energy credits to supplement the portion of utility provided power which is not renewable.

Information Related

List of References
  1. Santa Monica, California.,_California. Accessed April 3, 2010.
  2. Resource Conservation: Renewable Energy. Accessed April 2, 2010.
  3. Santa Monica Sustainable City Plan. Accessed April 2, 2010.

Hawaii Energy Self Sufficient, USA

Keywords: renewable energy region, 100% renewable energy self sufficiency region, Hawaii, renewable energy in Hawaii.

Hawaii is the newest of the 50 U.S. States and is the only state made up entirely of islands. It occupies most of an archipelago in the central of Pacific Ocean, southwest of continental United States, southeast of Japan, and northeast of Australia (Figure 1). The capital of Hawaii is Honolulu on the island of O'ahu.[1]

Figure 1. Hawaii in Pacific Ocean[1]

Renewable Energy Development
Hawaii relies nearly 90% of its energy needs on petroleum. Currently, Hawaii faces the highest cost of energy in the nation. This dependency places Hawaii's long term economic viability at risk because high oil prices will be passed on to consumers.2 Since 1959, Hawaii's tourism has been the largest industry. This industry contributes 24.3% of the Gross State Product (GSP) in 1997.[1] Experts indicate that world oil prices have reached new highs, the low prices in the past are not expected to return because worldwide demands continue to increase. To make sure there is energy for tomorrow and to increase the addiction on imported oil, the state decided to make Hawaii energy self sufficient.[2]

The vision of Hawaii is to be the World's Renewable Hydrogen Energy Leader. The focus is producing hydrogen from renewable resources, and not conversion of hydrogen from fossil fuels. In the long-term, it is believed that this initiative could change Hawaii from energy importer to energy exporter.[2]

Renewable Fuel Potential
A study by Stillwater Associates in 2003 showed that an ethanol industry of 90,000 gallons per year could add as much as $300,000,000 to Hawaii's economy indirect and direct value. In addition, emerging energy technologies increase the use of renewable resources through advanced hydrogen technology. It makes renewable energy can be stored, distributed, and used in variety of clean, efficient power, and transportation application.[2]

Strategic Plan[2]
  1. Create More Transparency In Gasoline Markets And the Energy Industry
  2. Develop And Increase Use Of Alternate Transportation Fuels
  3. Stimulate State and Consumer Energy Efficiency
  4. Significantly Increase Use of Renewable Energy Resources
  5. Establish Hawaii as Leader in Hydrogen Production

Information Related

List of References
  1. Hawaii. Accessed April 3, 2010.
  2. Energy for Tomorrow. Accessed August 23, 2009.