Renewable Energy Regions
Totally, 49 case studies are provided in this study. These case studies have been derived from 26 countries in the world. The regions include is only a little number of regions which have achieved self sufficiency with renewable energy or still in the progress to be in the same way. Region limitation applied in this study can be seen in concept of international study (see: region limitation).

Special Regions
Ten case studies are considered in special regions. First is seven regions whose have achieved 100% self-sufficiency. They are Isle of Eigg, Jämtland County Council, Pellworm Island, Regions and Municipalities in Germany, Samsø, Sustainable zone in Japan, and Varese Ligure. Second is a region with unusual concept. This category is represented by Navarra Region with environmental regulation of wind turbines. The last is two regions with environmental problems in implementing renewable energy. They are buffer zone as the location of the diesel plant (Bonaire Carribean Island) and death of big birds caused by turbines (Region of Castilla y León).

Concept of the Region
Concepts of each region which have been implemented are as below:

Bonaire Carribean Island, Netherland
The concept is to build a combination of wind and bio-diesel system. This system is designed to meet the electricity needs in the future. Besides, it is also a part of a planning to make the island as "the world's first nonprofit and luxury eco-resort community to commit 100% of operating profits to environmental protection and social improvements." (more)

Canary Islands, Spain
Canary Islands use renewable energy to power desalination plants. The plants supply water for the community and almost all tourist visited the islands. The systems implemented are wind farms combined to a desalination plant, wind generator coupled to a desalination plant, wind turbine coupled to a desalination plant, desalination plant combined to a solar photovoltaic, and desalination plant driven by solar thermal. (more)
Cape Clear Island, Cork County, Ireland
In 1997, the island started Cape Clear Energy Trail project. It would consist of nineteen different applications placed at different locations throughout the island. The aim is to establish a new business activities based on guided tours, training courses, workshops and the sale of renewable energy products.  (more)

Central Finland Region, Finland
This region has lunched a program "Dynamic by Bioenergy". It is a cluster based on business development strategy for 2007-2015. The target is to reduce greenhouse gases, improve self sufficiency and security of energy supply, to be independent from imported oil by year 2015.  (more)

City of Santa Monica, USA
Renewable energy is implemented through three actions: purchasing electricity from renewable energy providers, Solar Santa Monica, and sustainable city plan. Santa Monica City aims to increase the use of renewable and clean distributed generation sources, and reduce greenhouse gases emissions and consumption of fossil fuels. The main goal is renewable energy self sufficient by 2020. (more)

Crete Island, Greece
Crete has abundant resources of wind and solar energy. The implementation plan for renewable energy resources (RES) was formulated on the basis of the available of RES potential with consider the investors interest. The plan promotes electricity production by exploiting several RES technologies and electricity savings. (more)

Dongtan Eco-city, China
Dongtan City will run entirely on renewable energy for its building, infrastructure, and transportation. The city will have minimal negative impact to the environment. The plan incorporates many traditional Chinese design features and combines them with a sustainable approach to modern living. (more)

Dubai's Self Sufficient Ecotopia
"Free zone" dubbed Food City described as "the marriage of landscape and urbanism". It incorporates an extensive list of sustainable urban planning: vertically stacked landscape surfaces, artificial roof landscapes, renewable energy systems, aquatic farms, and thermal conditioning. The master plan aimed to turn the city into self sufficient metropolis. (more)

El Hierro Island, Spain
El-Hierro's sustainable development plan is a concept of biosphere reserve as an insular development model and laboratory. The island is totally isolated due to sea depths which makes any interconnection impossible. The energy for all inhabitants will be generated from a combination of 10 MW wind farm and hydroelectric power. (more)

Faroe Islands, Denmark
District heating from local waste incineration system is supplied 250 households. Less than 90% of the inhabitants are supplied by an integrated electricity net. Electricity from renewable energy is generated from thermal plants, hydropower, and wind. Hydrogen is aimed to store and distribute the excess energy. (more)

Frýdlant Microregion, Czech Republic
Focus of renewable energy utilization is biomass for heating and wind power for electricity. Integrated energy plan of the region is aimed to support local administration for promotion of rational use of energy (RUE) and renewable energy sources (RES). The target is to be 100% energy self-sufficient and increase the level of self-sufficiency by 48% in 2020. (more)

Goms, Energy Region in the Swiss Alps
Goms energy region is a model in how to deal with sustainable and environment and can enhance the local economy. The vision is for designing and implementing projects in practice. By the year 2030, the region intends to supply the majority of its energy consumption from biomass, sun, wind, water, and geothermal energy. (more)

Gotland, Sweden
The concept of renewable energy implementation in Gotland is transition towards a sustainable energy systems, through visionary plans and initiatives. District heating supplied by renewable energy, energy measures are implemented widespread, and biodiesel is replacing fossil fuels. The municipality set the target to be a sustainable society by 2025. (more)

Hawaii Energy Self Sufficient, USA
Hawai relies nearly 90% of its energy needs on petroleum. Due to high oil prices, the state decided to make the island energy self sufficient. The vision is to be the world's renewable hydrogen energy leader and the focus is producing hydrogen from renewable energy. (more)

Isle of Eigg, Scotland
Eigg is a model of a self-sufficient island which all the energy consumed made locally or self-supply system. The energy is generated by combining solar energy, wind energy, and hydropower. Besides, they also apply fair pricing system in paying the electricity. (more)

Isle of Turiguano, Cuba
Renewable energy development was launched as one of the five areas of the IUCN program. This implementation is executed in the situation of the lack of technologies, experience, or appropriate policy environment. The energy system is based on biomass, wind energy, hydropower, and solar energy. (more)

Jämtland County Council, Sweden
Jämtland's concept is directed to be focused on sustainable development and environmental management. The County Council is committed to achieve environmental sustainability. Hydroelectric, wind turbine, bioenergy, and green traffic are some implementations of renewable energy development in the region. (more)

Kalmar County Council, Sweden
Kalmar's national program is sustainable community which participating municipalities are required to conduct a thorough review of their activities and to decrease greenhouse gases while promoting trade and industry. The target is to become a fossil fuel free region by 2030. Some examples of the implementation are public transport use renewable energy, electric cars run on wind power, train powered by biogas. (more)

La Maddalena Archipelago, Sardinia, Italy
A program for renewable energy development in La Maddalena is realization renewable energy sources (RES) plants. The target in the short period is the deep modifications of energy market supported by the law innovations and the interest in realizing sustainable development. The target in the long period is to be supplied by 100% RES. (more)

Lazio Region, Italy
Implementation strategy in Lazio Region is developing renewable energy through incentives, creating research and development (R & D) centers, and administrative simplifications. This region adopts the EU policy for energy sustainability (20-20-20) by 2020. The adoption was presented in the new regional energy plan of Lazio Region (PER). (more)

Madeira Archipelago, Portugal
Nature conservation is an important factor because it is a major draw for tourists to Madeira. The concept of renewable energy implementation is based on utilization of local energy sources and rational use of energy. The strategy is embracing all renewable energy sources available on the island. (more)

Minorca Island, Spain
Minorca has been declared as biosphere reserve of UNESCO. The implementation of renewable energy is addressed in the sustainable development. Some aspects included are the resolution of eco-dilemmas in implementing renewable energy, employment creation, promotion of local business, qualification of the business and labor staff, and strengthening capacity of the joint responsibility image. (more

Norrbotten County Council, Sweden
Precondition for development in the fields of energy is Norrbotten stand together in bringing about effective development groups. The actors are needed to be brought together throughout the value chain via research and development. Some measures applied are cooperation and collaboration in the field of energy, school project, and energy efficiency. (more)

Pellworm Island, Germany
Pellworm Island has drawn up a local development plan to present model concepts for energy supply based on renewable energies and to access a broad spectrum of applications. The strategy is based on fully exploiting Pellworm's main sources of wind, sun, and biomass. The target was to be a self sufficiency, 100% renewable energy sources (RES). (more)

Polana Region, Slovakia
Polana is a typical rural region and one of UNESCO biosphere reserve that stagnates economically. The concept is utilization of biomass potential in sustainable way to protect its natural and cultural  values. The goal was to increase the level of economical self sufficiency at rural communities through the utilization of local biomass in the public buildings. (more)

Prince Edward Island, Canada
Implementation of renewable energy in Prince Edward Island is included in a rural economic development strategy and climate change strategy. Renewable energy is applied towards the incorporation of renewable energy (especially wind energy) into the provincial energy mix. The objectives are energy security, environmental sustainability, and economic development. (more)

Province of Chieti, Abruzzo, Italy
In Italy, the political authority and the regions are responsible in the implementation of the energy policy at local level because energy planning do not occur at provincial level. A program of environmental protection and promotion of renewable energies was launched during the process of political unity. The implementation of renewable energy was started with bio-diesel experiment for the buses. (more)

Province of Jaén, Spain
Jaén is one of the large producers of olive oil in the world. Exhausted olive pomace is utilized for thermal heating in biomass power plant. Other types of renewable energy applied in the region are wind, wood biomass, biogas, photovoltaic, solar collector, and small hydropower plants. (more)

Province of Ávila, Castilla Y León, Spain
Action plan of Ávila Region related to renewable energy is reducing the greatest consumption of energy in municipality, rural tourism housing, and national police academy. Some objectives of the plan are to decrease in the fossil fuels dependence and an improvement of energy situation in the province. Some targets related to the plan are energy consumption reduction, CO2 emission reduction, and a large number of renewable energy sources (RES) installations. (more)

Region of Castilla y León, Spain
Renewable energy development in Castilla y León is focused on wind power and solar power (thermic and photovoltaic). Wind energy is implemented with defining the environmental sensitivity area, but still there are some conflicts in the implementation of wind energy in the field. The objective of this region with wind power is to be the first producer on wind energy in Spanish. (more)

Region of Liguria, Italy
Implementation of renewable energy in Liguria Region is included in the regional energy environmental plan (REEP) which has some objectives related to energy saving and GHG emission reduction. The strategies are development of new regulations; and promote and support renewable energy production, energy save and energy efficiency. Some applications of renewable energy in the region are wind energy, wood biomass, biogas, PV, small hydro, and energy efficiency and energy saving in the building sector. (more)

Region of Navarra, Spain
Development of renewable energy are applied through wind energy, biomass, biogas, solar PV, and small hydro. Navarra Region gives special attention in the development of  wind energy through environmental regulation of wind turbines. Many targets want to be reached, one of them is 100% renewable energy self sufficiency by 2010. (more)

Region of Poitou-Charentes, France
Regional policies of Poitou-Charentes Region are based on environmental excellence to preserve natural resources, increase quality of life, create green growth, and generate new jobs. The objectives of renewable energy development is to improve living condition by reducing poverty and to fight against the effect of climate change. Some examples in promoting green growth are eco homes for 80,000 Euros; electric vehicles at about 5,000 euros; and the first 100% "clean energy" Kyoto School in Europe. (more)

Region of Provence–Alpes–Côte d’Azur, France
Development of renewable energy in Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur has been adopted as one of the fundamental principles of region's energy policy. The initiatives are transformed into Energie 2010 with the mission to make renewable energy a key asset for the region's environment, economy, and jobs, and AGIR (regional action for global innovation) programs. Besides, there are the Plaine du Var project which is assured to become a global model in sustainable urban planning and some applications of solar energy and photovoltaic installations. (more)

Region of Upper Austria, Austria
Renewable energy development in Upper Austria is motivated by special interest greens to turn in energy policy and a desire to reach the Kyoto goals. The utilization of renewable energy is applied to electricity and heat. A climate pact contains commitment to make the region become a model region in climate protection. (more)

Region of Valencia, Spain
In the Valencia Region, renewable energy is considered as an attractive field for developing business opportunities of renewable sources (wind, solar) to support energy efficiency and sustainable mobility policies (especially hydrogen and fuel cell). The energy policy is based on its own energy model, committed to sustainable development: savings and energy efficiency, renewable energy, research and development (R & D + i). Valencia hopes to become an international leader in the deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. (more)

Regional Council of Lapland, Finland
Lapland utilizes a plenty of hydro-power, local wood fuels, peat and waste liquor from forest industry. Regional Council of Lapland's energy visions are sustainability and self sufficiency. The objective is to utilize Lapland's large energy sources in order that Lappish knowledge and regional economy will develop and energy solutions support Lapland's vitality. (more)

Regione of Abruzzo, Italy
The region of Abruzzo identified energy efficiency and renewable energies as the key to reduce GHG emissions. A strategy on "New Energies" tend to introduce hydrogen as an energy carrier and the promotion of biofuels will be one the region's priorities. The objective is to fill negative gap between production and consumption within the national teritory. (more)

Renewable Energy Park in the Corfu Island, Greece
Initiatives of renewable energy was started with the aim to establish environmental protection projects and policies. The program concentrated on actions to increase renewable energy utilization to the local consumption energy. Some actions applied in the region are loads recording, energy efficiency, and installation of some renewable energy plants. (more)

Renewable Energy Regions and Municipalities, Germany
There is a lot of 100% renewable energy self sufficiency regions and municipalities in Germany. Development of renewable energy is supported by renewable energy act and feed-in electricity tariffs. The policy also sets for people to buy energy from renewable energy resources first before buying from non-renewable. (more)

Republic of Cyprus (Cyprus Island)
Renewable energy in Cyprus Island is implemented through the extensive utilization of solar water heating system. This extensive utilization of solar heating is without any subsidies from the government and the growth is in conformity natural laws of economic and reasonably stable. Cyprus's electricity authority is committed to purchase electricity produced from renewable energy sources to boost the development of these sources. (more)

Samsø, Denmark
Renewable energy prject in Samsø Island was based on a bottom-up method by creating citizen involvement right from the start. The program was designed so that target groups would also have other benefits than energy savings as a result of their behavioral change. The target was a 100% share of renewable energy in ten years. (more)

Self Sufficiency Energy Villages, Korea
Solar town in Dongwang Village is covered by the government at about 70% of the installation cost. The reason of this development is environmental issue. Deungryong Village implemented community participation within the program of photovoltaic panels on roofs of 100 thousands homes. The aim is to become self sufficiency with energy. (more)

Sustainable Energy Zone, Japan
Implementation of renewable energy is based on potential of renewable sources owned in the region. Each prefecture has different motivation, such as self sufficiency, environmental benefits, linking education with issues of global warming and the need to reduce CO2. One example of renewable energy implementation in the community is a project of a modern hydro-power plant based on ancient design with a principle "small is beautiful". The aim of this project is to create energy independence while protecting local industry in the forestry and agricultural sector. (more)

Tenerife Island, Spain
Renewable energy is implemented by considering environmental protection, one example is bio-climatic village. Renewable energy sources is integrated to achieve 100% self-sufficiency with Tenerife 100 programs. The strategy would be developed for a regional high-level water and energy production with renewable energy and desalination systems. (more)

The Community of Chepelare - Smolyan Region, Bulgaria
In Bulgaria, every municipality is obliged to create and implement a municipal energy plan. The plan in Chepelare Community is based on assumptions made in regional documents concerning environmental and energy issues. Priority actions include sustainable energy plan, energy efficiency, biomass supply, awareness raising and energy education. (more)

The Municipality of Thisted in Northwest Jutland, Denmark
Implementation of renewable energy is characterized by the development has been going on in step with local farmers investing many privately owned wind turbines and biogas plant. Farmers can earn money and sell the electricity to the local electricity utility. The vision is to become a carbon-neutral pioneer, take care the environment, and create more jobs. (more)

Varese Ligure, Liguria, Italy
Development of renewable energy in Varese Ligure is included in the framework of sustainable development. A program of sustainable development was implemented to achieve self-sufficiency through the promotion of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency. The target is to become 100% renewable and 100% organic. (more)

West Sussex County Council, England
Renewable energy development in West Sussex is integrated in initiatives to tackle the climate change. Biomass is the widespread source of renewable heat due to a huge resource of wood. Some implementations  of renewable energy are wood chip, wind turbine, and green electricity. (more)