La Maddalena Archipelago, Sardinia, Italy

Keywords: renewable energy region, 100% renewable energy self sufficiency region, La Maddalena Island, renewable energy in La Maddalena Island.

The Archipelago of La Maddalena is compounded of seven islands and various islets that constitute administratively the La Maddalena Municipality (Figure 1). La Maddalena archipelago is a National Park (Law 10/94, and DPR 17/5/96) with provisional land and sea zones with different barriers.[1] This archipelago is located in the Strait of Bonifacio between Corsica and north-eastern Sardinia, Italy.[2]

Figure 1. La Maddalena Archipelago[3][4]

La Maddalena isle is 19,6 km2 area, 43 coast line and it is the only one with a populated town, 12,000 inhabitants[1] (during the winter season) and it grows until 40,000 (during the summer season).[5] Caprera is a little island linked to the La Maddalena by bridge. The other island is uninhabited except Santa Maria which is populated by tourist in summer time.[1]

Energy Utilization
Currently the archipelago depends for energy from the mainland Sardinia and the electricity is "imported" using sea cables (up to a total per year of 41.841 MWh).[1] The annual energy needs is of 82.149,9 MWh (final use), which 45% for electrical needs. There is a relevant increase during the summer season, when the solar energy is high and the quantity of water is low (Figure 2). The loss of domestic uses water is helped by the water pipe coming from the principal island and also with the water boats.[5]

Figure 2. Energy Consumption during the Year[5]

Energy and Desire to be 100% RES
The interest but also the necessity for local realities to participate, in the short period, to the deep modifications of energy market, supported by the law innovations, and in particular the interest in realizing sustainable development, especially for La Maddalena, have been for the local institutions a good suggestion to select to be supplied, even in the long period, 100% for RES.[1]

Proposal of Realization RES Plants
There are three steps for the realization of RES Plants Proposal:[5]
  1. La Maddalena Archipelago has been participated in the European project "Altener".
  2. Completing the definition of the new city plan.
  3. The conversion of the Sea Military Arsenal (important structure of the Military Italian Navy). The Sea Military Arsenal will lodge other productive activities which are the part of the project as a Centre for the development of RES ( for the Sardinia Region and all the Mediterranean territory) and also a Consortium for the Technological Services Management (water, energy, waste).

La Maddalena took apart at a European project, in the framework of Altener Program with the island of Samsø, El-Hierro, and Aran. The objective is to pursue the energy autonomy from RES.[1] The project is executed in the years of 1999 and 2000. Samsø Island is the coordinator. Title of the project is “Towards 100% Renewable Energy on Small Islands. Development and implementation of Organizational and Financial Tools in a new Network Collaboration”. The focus of this project was barrier oriented.[6]

Effort Concentrated on La Maddalena
On La Maddalena, the effort was concentrated on solar PV and wind energy. A main task was to involve the municipality to get planning permission to implement RE technologies and to strengthen the overall political commitment to the future use of renewable energy on the island.[6]

Substance of the Participation of La Maddalena in Altener
For La Maddalena, this project has a role as the first step for the realization of feasibility plan on the island. Besides, the credit has been as a way to know the experience and the technological competition of others European partners. And the last, it was a way to sensitize the local authorities and the local enterprises on the energy theme.[5]

Focus on RE-Business Center
A new Altener was being negotiated in September 2002. It is seen as an important support to the process of preparing training facilities for renewable energy for professional level, and in the future to be able to set up professional teams who can support the implementation of renewable energy projects on a commercial level outside Samsø Island. The contract would be held by European Commission together with partners from Ireland (coordinator), Italy (La Maddalena), Greece, Spain, Germany, and some Central & Eastern European countries. The aim is to collaborate on the establishment of renewable energy business centers in the countries concerned.[6]

Program for RES Development
Work Carried Out of RES Plants Realization
The work carried out in that phase includes the following objectives:[1]
  • to set up 1 MWp from solar PV and 3-4 MWp from wind energy
  • to locate in selected places and considering the main productive services of La Maddalena isle (e.g. water cycle, drinkable water, water treatment) together with the new planned structures of the island (e.g. New tourist port, street illumination) and the planned restoration buildings, monument (e.g. fortress, many structures) and, the energy supply for the small isles of La Maddalena archipelago (stand alone systems).

The work was pointed out to (Table 1, 2, and 3):[5]

Table 1. Sector and Energy[5]

Table 2. Grid Connection of La Maddalena Archipelago[5]

Table 3. Places and Interventions[5]

The main task is the technological modernizer of services and the supply and use of energy. For this scope the energetic question has been tightly linked with the:[1]
  • constitution of a Consortium for the Technological Services Management of the whole archipelago, concerning in particular the production and the distribution of the energy (electric energy prevalently), the aqueduct and the water treatment management, the wastes collection and treatment, the quality of environment monitoring services;
  • the transport improvement, oriented to the pollution reduction and the preferential utilization of electric traction means;
  • the realization of a research program on renewable resources oriented to improve the technological and physical parameter, with the aim to make the applications more competitive in the market.

La Maddalena Municipality has indicated formally the guide line for the sustainable development and promoted a project with the strategic objective of the total energy supply from RES. La Maddalena assumed the principal role on the territory about the environment and its future, considering that the decision to place the RES will be controlled by the Superintendence Authority and National Park Authority. Criteria used for methodological work:[5]
  • Follow the directives of the park authority
  • The reduction mainly of the electric energy use for heat purpose
  • The need to privilege the heat solar plants to obtain the reduction of the environmental impact
  • The possibility to integrate the heat solar plants with the constructing buildings
  • The link of all the La Maddalena and Caprera plants to the Regional Distribution grid

Financial Sources
Total investment is equal to 10 Millions of EURO in the first phase and 8 Millions of EURO in the second phase. The financial sources come from:[5]
  • the Regional Program (Structural Funds – Q.C.S.) of the Sardinia Region,
  • the funds for the public works scheduled and during the planning phase financed by the Environmental Minister,
  • the Italian Government founds,
  • specific funds of the manager enterprise.

Management System
A proposal is the constitution of a Consortium for the technological services management for the La Maddalena archipelago. It will be the production and management unit of waters, energy and waste services. On the Consortium can be admitted, as well as the La Maddalena Municipality, the enterprises, the owners and the local authorities as the Province of Sassari, the Sardinia Region and the National Park Authority.[5]

The advantages are environmental and tourist image added value for La Maddalena Archipelago:[5]
  • a Quality mark to offer to the citizens and to the tourism people about the environmental quality and sustainable development;
  • a Technical Actor, directly responsible, for the technological services management of all the archipelago: the Management Consortium.

The realization of the proposal will improve:[5]
  • the development of local SME and a better local economy;
  • the employment and the technicians training and research;
  • services Technologic Improve;
  • the creation of a new Actor for the energy production - distribution, to compete in the RES financial market, created by the national laws (Legislative Decree Dec./1999 – Legislative Decree 24 April 2001).

Starting 2001, the RES energy producers and the enterprises making energy efficiency will issue financial obligation on the market (green certificates, energy certificates), add a financial value to the energy products. If the energy supply problem will not be resolved by 100% RES because the particular conditions of La Maddalena, and the barriers and constraints from the Natural Park Authorities, the proposal can innovate in a strong way all the system, looking to the future.[5]

Photovoltaic Panels in the Nautical Pole and School of Excellence
The ex military car fleet with traditional granite arcades have been converted to an artculated series of service spaces. These spaces are provided to host commercial, exhibition and formative, linked to nautical and touristic activities. The architecture is characterized by the 10,000 m2 white sail-like roof, suspended 10 meters from the ground and equipped with photovoltaic panels for the production of energy (Figure 3).[7]

Figure 3. The Nautical Pole and School of Excellence[7]

Information Related

List of References
  1. Towards 100% RES Supply in La Maddalena Island - Sardinia. Assessed October 6, 2009.
  2. Maddalena archipelago. Accessed April 30, 2010.
  3. La Maddalena lockt mit einsamen Stränden. Accessed April 29, 2010.
  4. La Maddalena Archipel. Accessed April 29, 2010.
  5. Towards 100 % RES Supply in La Maddalena Island-Sardinia. Accessed November 21, 2009.
  6. European Cooperation: Four islands campaigned for renewable energy in the years of 1999 and 2000. Accessed November 21, 2009.
  7. Ex Arsenale at Maddalena. Accessed June 30, 2010.

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